REPRODUCTION AND LARVAL REARING OF SANDFISH (Holothuria scabra)
The natural stock of sea cucumber Holothuria scabra (known as sandfish) has been declining in both population and size, making it difficult to collect broodstock and juvenile sandfishes for aquaculture. This research aims to evaluate the reproduction of domesticated broodstock (F-1) and performance of the juveniles (F-2). Broodstock were reared in two rectangular concrete tanks with a dimension of 190 x 290 x 70 cm3. There were 12 individuals (7 males and 5 females) of broodstock (F-1) with total length and mean body weight of 12.0 ± 1.21 cm and 122.6 ± 32.37 g, respectively. Six broodstock were put in each tank and fed with compressed benthos at 4% biomass daily in the afternoon. During our experiment, domesticated sandfish broodstock successfully spawned twice. The first spawning (occurred in January 2017) had one female spawned that released 1,350,000 eggs with a hatching rate of 57.4%. Another broodstock spawned in April 2017 and produced 3,280,000 eggs with a hatching rate of 78.66%. The growth performance of 170 days-old juveniles (F-2) shows a total length of 5.66 ± 0.90 cm and a mean body weight of 10.08 ± 2.07 g. The survival rates are 5.19% and 8.68% for juveniles spawned in January and April, respectively. We conclude by showing that sandfish could be domesticated to produce seeds for further aquaculture development.
Akamine, J. (2004). The status of the sea cucumber fisheries and trade in Japan: past and present. In Advances in sea cucumber Aquaculture and management. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 463. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. Italy. pp 39-48.
Al Rashdi, K. M., Eeckhaut, I., and Claereboudt, M. R. (2012). A manual on hatchery of sea cucumber Holothuria scabra in the Sultanate of Oman. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Wealth, Aquaculture Centre, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. 27 pp.
Battaglene, S. C. (1999). Culture of tropical sea cucumbers for stock restoration and enhancement. The ICLARM Quarterly 2(4):4-11.
Beauregard, K. A., Truong, N. T., Zhang, H. Y., and Beck, W. Y. (2001). The detection and isolation of a novel antimicrobial peptide from the echinoderm, Cucumaria frondosa. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 484: 55-62. doi : 10.1007/978-1-4615-1291-2_5.
Ivy, G. and Giraspy,. D. A. (2006). Development of large-scale hatchery production techniques for the commercially important sea cucumber Holothuria scabra var. versicolor (Conand, 1986) in Queensland, Australia. SPC Bechede-mer Information Bulletin 24:28–34.
James, D. B., Gandhi, A. D., Palaniswamy, N. and Rodrigo, J. X. (1994). Hatchery Techniques and Culture of Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra. CMFRI Special Publication. No. 57, India. 41 p.
Madang, H. M. (2011). Ekobiologic and dynamics stocks of sandfish (Holothuria scabra Jaeger), black sea cucumber (Holothuria edulis) and relation with exploitation at Laluin village, North Maluku Province. Thesis. Magister. Bogor Agriculture University. 126 p.
Mercier A., Battaglene, S. C., and Hamel, J. F. (1999). Daily burrowing cycle and feeding activity of juvenile sea cucumbers Holothuria scabra in response to environmental factors. J. Exp. Mar. Bio. Ecol., 239(1):125–156. doi:10.1016/s0022-0981(99)00034-9.
Notowinarto and Putro, D. H. (1992). Preliminary study on larval development of White sea cucumber Holothuria scabra. Bull. Mariculture, 5:15-25.
Purcell, S. W. and Kirby, D. S. (2005). Restocking the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra: Sizing no-take zones through individual-based movement modelling. Fish. Res., 80:53–61. doi: 10.1016/j.fishres.2006.03.020.
Rustam. (2006). Sea cucumber culture. In Training on Mariculture COREMAP Phase II. Selayar Residence. Mattirotasi Makassar Foundation. 11 p.
Sembiring, S. B. M., Darmansyah, Arfah, R., and Sugama, K. (1996). The effect of feeding frequencies on the growth and survival rates of larvae of sea cucumber Holothuria scabra. Indonesian Fisheries Research Journal 2(2):42-47.
Sembiring, S. B. M., Sugama, K., Suastika, I. M., Makatutu, D., and Jufri. (2004). Technical guidelines of sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra breeding Technology. Central Research Institute for Aquaculture. Marine and Fisheries Research Agency. Department of Marine and Fisheries. Jakarta. 23 p.
Sembiring, S. B. M., Wardana, I. K., and Haryanti. (2015). Sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra breeding technology. In Recommendation technology of marine and fisheries. Marine and Fisheries Research and Development Agency. Ministry of Marine Affair and Fisheries. Jakarta. p. 187-200.
Sembiring, S. B. M., Wardana, I. K., and Haryanti. (2016). Performance of sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra juvenile from different sources of broodstock. Aquac. Res. J., 11(2):147-154. doi: 10.15578/ jra.11.2.2016.147-154.
Sembiring, S. B. M., Wardana, I. K., Giri, N. A., and Haryanti. (2017). Performance of gonad re-maturation of sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra broodstock fed with different feed ingredients. Aquac. Res. J., 12(2):147-159. doi: 10.15578/jra.12.2.2017.147-159.
Wen, J., Hu, C., and Fan, S. (2010). Chemical composition and nutritional quality of sea cucumbers. J. Sci. Food. Agric., 90: 2469– 2474. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.4108.
Wolkenhauer, S. M. (2008). Burying and feeding activity of adult Holothuria scabra (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in a controlled environment. SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin, 27:25–28.
Zhang, B., Sun, D., and Wu, Y. (1995). Preliminary analysis on the feeding habit of Apostichopus japonicus in the rocky coast waters off Lingshan Island. Mar. Sci., 3:11–13.
Copyright (c) 2018 Marine Research in Indonesia
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.