Lisa Fajar Indriana, Muhammad Firdaus, - Supono, Fawzan Bhakti Soffa


Sea cucumbers belonged to the species of Holothuria atra are one of the holothurians that could reproduce asexually through fission particularly when their ambient environments are not optimum to reproduce sexually. The reproductive pattern of H. atra has been shown to correlate with to the condition of H. atra population as well as their habitats and environments. This study aims to investigate the asexual reproduction and fission rate of H. atra in Tanjung, North Lombok, Indonesia. We conducted surveys in February, May, July, August, September and December 2016 by applying the free collection method. A total of 1,383 individual H. atra were collected consisting of 931 intact or normal individuals, 174 anterior individuals, 261 posterior individuals and 17 uncategorized individuals. Fissioned H. atra were found in every sampling conducted in the six different months with fission rates range from 5.53 to 30.40%. This research shows that the population of H. atra in Tanjung, North Lombok, are susceptible to asexual reproduction (fission). Fission rate value of > 5% is associated with an adaptation mechanism of H. atra to maintain their population in the wild. Further investigation on the environmental conditions stimulating H. atra fission is needed to understand the reproduction and population dynamic of this species in Tanjung waters.


Holothuria atra, asexual, fission rate, population, reproduction

Full Text:



Asha, P. S., Diwakar, K., Santhanavalli, G., and Manissery, M. K. (2015). Comparative distribution and habitat preference of the sea cucumber Holothuria atra Jaeger at protected and unprotected sites in Thoothukudi region of Gulf of Mannar, South-East coast of India. P. Indian J. Fish., 62, 52-57.

Boyer, C., Cailasson, S., and Mairesse, K. (1995). Asexual reproduction in Holothuria atra on a reef of Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean. SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin., 7, 7-9.

Chao, S. M., Chen, C. P., and Alexander, P. S. (1993). Fission and its effect on population structure of Holothuria atra (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in Taiwan. Mar. Biol., 116, 109-115.

Chao, S. M., Chen, C. P., and Alexander, P.S. (1994). Reproduction and growth of Holothuria atra (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) at two contrasting sites in southern Taiwan. Mar. Biol., 119, 565-57.

Choo, P. S. (2008). Population status, fisheries and trade of sea cucumbers in Asia. In: Sea cucumbers. A global review of fisheries and trade. Toral-Granda, V., Lovatelli, A., Vasconcellos, M (eds). FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. 16 (pp. 81118). Rome.

Conand, C., Morel, C., and Mussard, R. (1997). A new study of asexual reproduction in holothurian: Fission in Holothuria leucospilota populations on Reunion Island in Indian Ocean. SPC Beche-de-Mer Information Bulletin, 9, 5-11.

Conand, C. and De Ridder, C. (1990). Reproduction asexuée par scission chez Holothuria atra (Holothuroidea) dans des populations de platiers récifaux. p. 71-76.

Conand, C. (1996). Asexual reproduction by fission in Holothuria atra: variability of some parameters in populations from the tropical lndo-Pacific. Oceanol. Acta, 19, 209-216.

Conand, C. (2006). Harvest and trade: Utilization of sea cucumbers; sea cucumbers fisheries; current international trade; illegal, unreported and unregulated trade; bycatch; socioeconomic characteristics of the trade in sea cucumbers. p. 51-73. In; Bruckner A.W. (ed). Proceedings of the CITES workshop on the conservation of sea cucumbers in the families Holothuriidae and Stichopodidae. NOAA Technical Memorandum.. 244p.

Dhinakaran, D. I. and Lipton, A.P. (2014). Pharmacological Potentials of Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra Extracts from the Indian Ocean. Asian J. Biomed. Pharm. Sci., 4, 3643.

Dissanayake, D. C. T. and Stefansson, G. (2012). Present status of the commercial sea cucumber fishery off the north-west and east coast of Sri-Lanka. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 92, 831-841.

Dolmatov, I. Y. (2014). Asexual reproduction in the holothurians. Sci. World J., 1-13.

Dwiono, S. A. P., Purwati, P., Fahmi, V., and Indriana, L. F. (2008). Asexual Reproduction of Holothuria atra (Echinoderm) at Teluk Medana, West Lombok. Jurnal Penelitian Perikanan Indonesia, 14, 415-421.

Emson, R. H. and Mladenov, P. V. (1987). Studies of the fissiparous Holothurian Holothuria parvula (Selenka) (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). J. Exp. Mar. Bio. Ecol., 111, 195-211. doi: 10.1016/0022-0981(87)900281.

Friedman, K., Eriksson, H., Tardy, E. & Pakoa, K. (2011). Management of sea cucumber stocks: patterns of vulnerability and recovery of sea cucumber stocks impacted by fishing. Fish and Fisheries. 2011;12:75-93. doi. org/10.1111/j.1467-2979.2010.00384.x.

Harriott, V. (1982). Sexual and asexual reproduction of Holothuria atra Jaeger at Heron Island Reef, Great Barrier Reef. Papers from the Echinoderm Conference. Australian Museum Memoir, 16, 53-66.

Indriana, L. F. and Supono. (2012). Asexual Reproduction Potential for Natural Population Recovery of Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra at West Sumbawa. Proceeding of ISOI IX. Mataram, 21-23 October 2012.

Kinch, J., Purcell, S., Uthicke, S., and Friedman, K. (2008). Population status, fisheries and trade of sea cucumbers in the Western Central Pacific. In: Sea cucumbers. A global review of fisheries and trade. Toral-Granda, V., Lovatelli, A., Vasconcellos, M. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper, Rome. 516, 7–55.

Lee, J., Byrne, M., and Uthicke, S. (2008). The influence of population density on fission and growth of Holothuria atra in natural mesocosms. J. Exp. Mar. Bio. Ecol., 365, 126–135. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2008.08.003.

Natan, Y., Tetelepta, J. M., and Uneputty, P. A. (2016). Sustainability of sea cucumber fishery at Central Maluku and Southeast Maluku Regency, Indonesia. AACL Bioflux, 9(1), 3441.

Purwati, P., Dwiono, S. A. P, Indriana, L. F., and Fahmi, V. (2009). Shifting the natural fission plane of Holothuria atra (Aspidochirotida, Holothuroidea, Echinodermata). SPC Bechede-mer Information Bulletin, 29, 16-19.

Reichenbach, N., Nishar, Y., and Saeed, A. (1996). Species and Size?Related Trends in Asexual Propagation of Commercially Important Species of Tropical Sea Cucumbers (Holothuroidea). J. World. Aquacult. Soc., 27(4), 475-482. doi: 10.1111/j.17497345.1996.tb00632.x. . Access on November 4, 2017.

Thorne, B. V. and Byrne, M. (2013). Survivorship of post-split fission products of Holothuria atra (Holothuroidea: Aspidochirotida) on the southern Great Barrier Reef. Invertebr. reprod. dev., 57(4), 293-300. doi: 10.1080/07924259.2013.786762.

Thorne, B. V., Eriksson, H., and Byrne, M. (2013). Long term trends in population dynamics and reproduction in Holothuria atra (Aspidochirotida) in the southern Great Barrier Reef; the importance of asexual and sexual reproduction. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K., 93(4), 1067-1072. doi: 10.1017/ S0025315412000343.

Uthicke, S. (1997). Seasonality of asexual reproduction in Holothuria (Halodeima) atra, H. (H.) edulis and Stichopus chloronotus (Holothuroidea: Aspidochirotida) on the Great Barrier Reef. Mar. Biol., 129, 435-441. doi: 10.1007/s002270050184.

Uthicke, S. (2001). Influence of asexual reproduction on the structure and dynamics of Holothuria (Halodeima) atra and Stichopus chloronotus populations of the Great Barrier Reef. Mar. Freshwater Res., 52(2), 205-215. doi: 10.1071/MF00064.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2018 Marine Research in Indonesia

 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
© Research Center for Oceanography - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)